- Doctor of Philosophy (University of New South Wales), 1983
- Bachelor of Arts (1st Class Honours) (University
of New South Wales), 1975
- Tutor, School of Psychology, University of New South
Wales (February 1978 - June 1979: part-time; January 1981 - June 1983: full-time)
- Research Psychologist, Quality Assurance Project, School of Psychiatry,
Prince Henry Hospital (June 1983 - January 1984)
- Lecturer, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales (February
1984 - July 1990)
- Senior Lecturer, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales
(July 1990 - Jan.1996)
- Associate Professor, School of Psychology, University of New South
Wales (January 1996 - Dec, 2001)
- Head of School, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales
- Professor of Cognitive Psychology, School of Psychology, University
of Sydney (Jan 2002-present)
- Head of School, School of Psychology, University of Sydney (2005-2011)
Awards and Distinctions
- Australian Psychological Society Prize for Best Honours
- Post-graduate Research Scholarship, 1976, 1978-80
- Visiting Fellow, Cognitive Science Centre, University of Arizona,
Jan. - March, 1989
- Visiting Fellow, Department of Psychology, McGill University, April-June,
- Visiting Fellow, Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge UK, Jan. - June,
- Visiting Fellow, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University,Jan
- Award for Best Contribution to Cognitive Science, Australian Society
for Cognitive Science, April, 1995
- Elected Fellow of Academy of Social Sciences of Australia, 1998
- Australian Research Council College of Experts (Social, Behavioural and Economic Sciences) 2003-2005
- Appointed to Research Quality Framework Expert Panel 2007
- Invited membership NSW Health Department Mental Health Priority Taskforce 2008-2010
- Invited membership NSW Health Ministerial Advisory Committee on Mental Health 2011
My research is based in cognitive psychology but integrates
theories and methods from the domains of computer science, philosophy and
neuroscience – the fields that define the discipline of cognitive science.
As an individual researcher, and in collaboration with students and researchers
from a range of disciplines, I have used a variety of methodologies to investigate
how both healthy individuals and people suffering from psychiatric disorders
attend to and analyse words and sentences.
The central focus of my research has been on lexical processing
and its relationship to reading skill: how do skilled language users represent
and retrieve their knowledge about the words; how do these cognitive capabilities
develop; and how does lexical processing contribute to reading skill. My research
has focused primarily on English, but I have also collaborated in research
projects comparing speakers of different languages to determine how the characteristics
of different writing systems, and their relationship to phonology and semantics,
influences language processing.
External Research Funding
Australian Research Council
- The effects of similarity
between words on lexical access: Implications for models of visual word recognition.
- Models of visual
word recognition: Distinguishing between localised and distributed representations.
- The role of attention
in visual word recognition. 1996-8: $102,000
- Defining the perceptual
unit for reading: The role of subsyllabic segmentation in visual word identification.
- Testing detailed
models of word identification: Decision and response contributions to performance.
(Andrews & Heathcote) 2000-2002: $103,500
- Lexical retrieval
and reading comprehension : Binding perceptual, lexical and conceptual information
in on-line reading. 2003-2005: $165,000
- Training for adaptability: The role of errors, exceptions and rules of thumb (Hesketh, B. Neal, A. Andrews, S et al.) ARC Linkage grant, 2004-2007: $673,500
- Enabling Human Communication (Dale, R. ,Burnham, D. Andrews, S. et al.) ARC Network Grant 2004-2008: $2,000,000
- Lexical expertise and reading skill: An experimental analysis of individual differences in written language proficiency. 2006-2008: $202,500
- The ingredients of conscious identification. (Harris, I. Andrews, S. & Hayward, W). 2008-2010 $302,000
- Cracking the code for skilled reading: the role of lexical quality in word and sentence reading. (Andrews, S & Davis, C). 2012-2014: $205,000
National Health and Medical Research Council
- Brain potential indices
of pre-attentive processes in schizophrenia. (McConaghy, Catts, Andrews &
Ward) 1990-1992: $196,668
- Thought disorder
in normal and psychotic populations. (McConaghy, Catts, Andrews & Ward)
correlates of ERP abnormalities in schizophrenia. (Ward, Catts, Andrews &
Michie) 1992-4: $235,612
- Development of
a Psychosis Observational Rating Scale (Catts, McConaghy, Andrews & Bird).
Current Funded Projects
Cracking the code for skilled reading: The role of lexical quality in word and sentence reading
This project tests the hypothesis that highly skilled reading depends on precisely specified stored knowledge about written words. Building upon an approach I have successfully applied in a series of papers, we will investigate how individual differences in reading, spelling and vocabulary among expert readers influence the timecourse of early orthographic and semantic processes in word identification and the pattern of lexical and contextual influences on eye movements during sentence reading. We will also extend a new computational model of visual word identification developed by Colin Davis to explain the basis of individual differences in early word processing.
- Andrews, S. and Reynolds, G. (2013) Why it is easier to wreak havoc than unleash havoc: The role of lexical co-occurrence, predictability, and reading proficiency in sentence reading. In A. Britt, S.R. Goldman & J-F. Rouet (Eds.), Reading - from words to multiple texts (pp. 72 - 91). New York: Routledge.
- Andrews, S. and Lo, S. (2013) Is morphological priming stronger for transparent than opaque words? It depends on individual differences in spelling and vocabulary. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 279–296.
- Andrews, S. (2012) Individual differences in skilled visual word recognition and reading: The role of lexical quality. In J. Adelman (Ed.) Visual word recognition (pp 151-172). Hove, UK: Psychology Press
- Loh, V., Andrews, S., Hesketh, B. and Griffin, B. (2012). The moderating effect of individual differences in error-management training: Who learns from mistakes? Human Factors, DOI:10.1177/0018720812451856
- Hersch, J. & Andrews, S. (2012). Lexical quality and reading skill: Bottom-up and top-down contributions to sentence processing. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16:3, 240-262
- Andrews. S. & Lo, S. (2012) Not all skilled readers have cracked the code: Individual differences in masked form priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 38, 152-163.
- Andrews, S. and Hersch, J. (2010). Lexical precision in skilled readers: Individual differences in masked neighbor priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(2), 299-318
- Donkin, C., Brown, S.D., Heathcote, A. & Andrews, S. (2009). Non-Decision Time Effects in the Lexical Decision Task. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
- Andrews, S. & Bond, R. (2009) Lexical expertise and reading skill: Bottom-up and top-down processing of lexical ambiguity. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 687-711.
- Andrews, S. (2008) Lexical expertise and reading skill. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 49, 249-281.
- Newell, B.R., Cavenett, T. & Andrews, S. (2008) On the immunity of perceptual implicit memory to manipulations of attention. Memory & Cognition, 36, 725-734.
- Bond, R. & Andrews, S. (2008) Repetition blindness in sentence contexts: Not just an attribution? Memory & Cognition, 36, 295-313.
- Andrews, S. (Ed.) (2006) From inkmarks to ideas: Current issues in lexical processing. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
- Anstey, K., Butterworth, P., Borzycki, M. & Andrews, S. (2006) Between
and within-individual effects of visual contrast sensitivity on perceptual
matching, processing speed and associative memory in older adults. Gerontology,
- Andrews, S., Woollams, A. & Bond, R. (2005) Spelling-sound typicality
only affects words with digraphs: Further qualifications to the regularity
effect on word naming. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 567-593.
- Drobny, J.V., Anstey, K.J. & Andrews, S. (2005) Visual memory testing
in older adults with age-related visual decline: A measure of memory performance
of visual functioning? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology,
- Newell, B.R. & Andrews, S. (2004) Levels of processing effects on implicit
and explicit memory tasks: Using question position to investigate the lexical-processing
hypothesis. Experimental Psychology, 51, 1-13.
- Andrews, S., Miller, B. & Rayner, K. (2004) Eye fixation measures of
morphological segmentation of compound words: There is a mouse in the mousetrap.
European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16(2), 285-311.
- Andrews, S. (2003) E-Z Readers assumptions about lexical processing: Not
so easy to define the two stage of lexical access? Behavioral and Brain Sciences,
- Shoolman, N. & Andrews, S. (2003) Racehorses, reindeers and sparrows:
Using masked priming to investigate morphological influences on word identification.
In S. Kinoshita & S. Lupker (Eds.), Masked priming: The state of the art.
- Anstey, K., Dain, S., Andrews, S. & Drobney, J. (2002) Visual abilities
in older adults explain age-differences in Stroop and fluid intelligence but
not face recognition: Implications for the vision-cognition connection. Aging,
Neuropsychology and Cognition, 9, 253-265.
- Andrews, S. & Heathcote, A. (2001) Distinguishing common and task-specific
processes in lexical retrieval: A matter of some moment? Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 27, 514-544.
- Andrews, S. & Davis, C. (1999) Interactive activation accounts of morphological
decomposition: Finding the trap in mousetrap. Brain and Language, 68, 355-361.
- Krascum, R.M. & Andrews, S. (1998) The effects of theories on children’s
acquisition of family resemblance categories. Child Development, 69, 333-346.
- Andrews, S. & Scarratt, D. R. (1998) Rule and analogy mechanisms in
reading nonwords: Hough dou peapel rede gnew wirds? Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1052-1086.
- Andrews, S. (1997) The role of orthographic similarity in lexical retrieval:
resolving neighborhood conflicts. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 439-461.
- Shelley, A-M., Catts, S.V., Ward, P.B., Andrews, S., Mitchell, P., Michie,
P.M. & McConaghy, N. (1997) The effect of decreased catacholamine transmission
on ERP indices of selective attention. Neuropsychopharmacology, 16, 202-210.
- Andrews, S. & Scarratt, D. R. (1996) What comes after phonological awareness?
Using lexical experts to investigate orthographic processing in reading. Australian
Journal of Psychology, 48, 141-148.
- Andrews, S. (1996) Lexical retrieval and selection processes: Effects of
transposed-letter confusability. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 775-800.
- Neal, A., Hesketh, B. & Andrews, S. (1995) Instance-based categorization:
Automatic versus intentional forms of retrieval. Memory and Cognition, 23,
- Karayanidis, F., Andrews, S., Ward, P. & Michie, P. (1995) ERP indices
of auditory selective attention in aging and Parkinson's disease. Psychophysiology,
- Catts, S., Shelley, A-M, Ward, P., Liebert, B., McConaghy, N., Andrews,
S. & Michie, P. (1995) Brain potential evidence for an auditory sensory
memory deficit in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 213-219.
- Karayanidis, F., Andrews, S., Ward, P.B. & McConaghy, N. (1993) Event-related
potentials and repetition priming in young, middle-aged and elderly normal
subjects. Cognitive Brain Research, 1, 123-134.
- Mitchell, P., Andrews, S. & Ward, P. (1993) An event-related potential
study of semantic congruity and repetition in a sentence-reading task: Effects
of context change. Psychophysiology, 30, 496-509.
- Krascum, R.M. & Andrews, S. (1993) Feature-based versus exemplar-based
strategies in preschoolers' category learning. Journal of Experimental Child
Psychology, 56, 1-48.
- Andrews, S., Shelley, A.M., Fox, A.M., Catts, S.V., Ward, P.B. & McConaghy,
N. (1993) Event-related potential indices of semantic processing in schizophrenia.
Biological Psychiatry, 34, 443-458.
- Andrews, S. (1992) Neighbourhood effects on lexical access: Lexical similarity
or orthographic redundancy? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory
and Cognition, 18, 234-254.
- Andrews, S. (1992) A skills approach: Optimising initial reading instruction.
A. Watson & A. Badenhop (Eds.) The Prevention of Reading Failure, Ashton
- Andrews, S., Ward, P.B., Catts, S.V. (1992) Schizophrenia: Understanding
the processes underlying differences in symptoms & outcome. In S. Schwartz
(Ed.) Australian Cases in Clinical Psychology. Sydney: Jacaranda Wiley.
- Andrews, S. (1992) Ideology & methods of reading instruction: why is
phonics an F-word? In Literacy Round Table Monographs, Sydney: Board of Studies,
Department of Education.
- Andrews, S. (1991) Cognitive processes in skill acquisition: Implications
for training. In B. Hesketh & A. Adams (Eds.), Psychological Perspectives
on Occupational Health and Rehabilitation. Sydney: Psychcorp/ Harcourt Brace.
- Andrews, S. (1991) Applying cognitive principles to the design of rehabilitation
training programs. In B. Hesketh & A. Adams (Eds.), Psychological Perspectives
on Occupational Health and Rehabilitation. Sydney: Psychcorp/ Harcourt Brace.
- Karayanidis, F., Andrews, S., Ward, P.B. & McConaghy, N. (1991) Effects
of inter-item lag on word repetition: An event related potential study. Psychophysiology,
- Mitchell, P., Andrews, S., Fox, A., Catts, S., Ward, P. & McConaghy,
N. (1991) Active and passive attention in schizophrenia: An ERP study of information
processing in a linguistic task. Biological Psychology, 32, 101-124.
- Shelley, A.M., Ward, P., Michie, P., Andrews, S., Mitchell, P., Catts, S.
& McConaghy, N. (1991) The effects of repeated testing on ERP components
during auditory selective attention. Psychophysiology, 28, 496-510.
- Shelley, A.M., Ward, P.B., Catts, S.V., Michie, P.T., Andrews, S. &
McConaghy, N. (1991) Mismatch negativity: An index of a preattentive processing
deficit in schizophrenia, Biological Psychiatry, 30, 1059-1062.
- Andrews, S., Mitchell, P., Fox, A., Catts, S., Ward, P. & McConaghy,
N. (1990) ERP indices of semantic processing in schizophrenia. In C. Brunia,
A. Gaillard & A. Kok (Eds.) Psychophysiological Brain Research. Tilburg
- Shelley, A-M., Catts, S., Ward, P., Michie, P., Andrews, S., Mitchell, P.
& McConaghy, N. (1990) The effects of morphine and naloxone on auditory
ERPs. In C. Brunia, A. Gaillard & A. Kok (Eds.) Psychophysiological Brain
Research. Tilburg University Press.
- Hesketh, B., Andrews, S. & Chandler, P. (1989) Training for transferable
skills: The role of examples and schema. Educational Technology and Training
International, 26, 156-165.
- Andrews, S. (1989) Frequency and neighborhood effects on lexical access:
Activation or search? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory
and Cognition, 15, 802-814.
- Andrews, S. (1989) Psycholinguistics and reading acquisition: The argument
for decoding. NSW Journal of Special Education, 10, 15-20.
- Hesketh, B., Chandler, P. & Andrews, S. (1988) Training for transfer:
Developing learning skills. The Australian TAFE Teacher, August.
- Andrews, S., Vaughn, K., Harvey, R. & Andrews, J.G. (1986) Psychiatrists'
views on the treatment of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149,
- Andrews, S. (1986) Morphological influences on lexical access: Lexical or
nonlexical effects. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 726-740.
- Andrews, S. (1986) Models of information-processing: Implications for diagnostic
assessment. Test Advisory Committee Conference Papers, NSW Department of Education.
- Adams, R.D. & Andrews, S. (1984) Brain injury and movement recall: Preselection,
active-passive and interference effects. Human Movement Science, 3, 285-299.
- Quality Assurance Project (1984) Treatment guidelines for the management
of schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 18, 19-39.
- Andrews, S. (1982) Phonological recoding: Is the regularity effect consistent?
Memory and Cognition, 10, 565-575.
Selected Professional Contributions
- Member, Professional Development Approval and Accreditation Group, Australian Psychological Society, 2000-2003
- Member, National Committee for Psychology, 2002-3
- Member, NSW Board of studies
Curriculum Committee, Cognitive science, 2002-3
- Member, Working Party to select examples of psychology research for Federal Minister of Education, 2003
- Member, Advisory Committee, Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, 2006-9
- Member, HODSPA Working Party to lobby Federal Government about the funding of Psychology, 2006-7
- Australian Research Council College of Experts (Social, Behavioural and Economic Sciences) 2003-2005
- Member, Psychology Review Panel, Australian National University, 2007
- Member, National Health and Medical Research Council, Psychology/Psychiatry Grant Review Panel , 2008
- Chair, Psychology Review Panel, University of Queensland, 2008
- Member, NSW Health Department Mental Health Priority Taskforce 2008-2010
- Member, Psychology Review Panel, University of Western Australia, 2009
- Co-chair, Australian Research Council Future Fellowship Selection Advisory Committee, 2009 Member, Psychology Accreditation Review Team, Imam University, Saudi Arabia, 2010
- Australian Journal of Psychology, 1995-7
- Memory & Cognition, 2006-2008
- Journal of Memory and Language, 2009-11, 2012-2014
- Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 1996, 1997-2000, 2001-present
- Journal of Memory and Language, 1997-2000, 2001-2003, 2004-2008
- Memory and Cognition, 2001-2003, 2004-2006
- Psychological Review, 2004-2010
- Member of the Australian Psychological Society (APS)
- Member of the Psychonomic Society